Category Archives: Anthony Atala

3D Bioprinting of Hair

Within the world of 3D bioprinting, the most exciting developments to look forward to involve 3D printing of essential human body parts. However, for us hair loss sufferers, 3D bioprinted hair is of disproportionate interest.

Note that there are various 3D printing technologies with different purposes. These include: 3D printing of scaffolds to assist in 3D culturing of hair and dermal papilla cells; laser-assisted bio-printing of hair follicles  (that would then be transplanted); and 3D printing of hair systems. The first of these is our main focus.

December 21, 2022

New Studies on 3D Bioprinting of Hair Follicles

I am updating this post due to several new studies on 3D bioprinting of hair follicles.

  • A new December 2022 paper from China concludes that a new bead-jet enabled printing of mesenchymal stem cell laden Matrigel beads results in hair follicle regeneration. Matrigel (similar to extracellular matrix) was selected as the biomaterial for this research. Compared with conventional 3D in-situ printing techniques, bead-jet printing is specialized for stem cell therapy, with improved retention rates. The new technology might find a diverse range of uses in clinical applications for regenerative medicine.
  • A November 2022 paper from China discusses an interesting mechanical engineering approach of “in situ” bioprinting. The scientists printed bioinks directly into defective sites in order to promote tissue repair. Epidermal stem cells (Epi-SCs), skin-derived precursors (SKPs), and Matrigel were “printed” into the wounds of nude mice to promote hair follicle regeneration. The results showed successful regeneration of hair follicles and other skin appendages at 4 weeks after in situ bioprinting. Moreover, the bioprinting only slightly decreased stem cell viability. These findings support a mechanical engineering method for hair follicle regeneration.
  • A June 2022 study from Japan proposes an approach for the scalable and automated preparation of highly hair-inductive grafts using a bioprinter. Mesenchymal–epithelial interactions resulted in efficient hair follicle regeneration in mice. However, the new hair shafts remained mostly beneath the skin. The scientists then developed a unique method to enable the hair to sprout upwards through the skin. Note that the lead author of this study is Junji Fukuda, who I have covered many times on this blog.
  • A study from China that was published in September 2021 discusses a new approach in three-dimensional bioprinting for the tissue engineering of hair follicle reconstruction. This method entails a 3D bioprinting technique based on a gelatin/alginate hydrogel to construct a multilayer composite scaffold. The end results is a suitable 3D microenvironment for dermal papilla cells to induce new hair follicle formation. Update: A March 2022 summary can be read on ScienceDirect.
  • A June 2021 summary from China is a must read. It is titled “3D bioprinting for skin tissue engineering: Current status and perspectives.” It covers in detail the latest status of the main 3D bioprinting technologies (droplet-based, laser-assisted, extrusion-based and stereolithography). It then covers in detail skin bioprinting, hair bioprinting an sweat gland bioprinting.
  • Another far more detailed study from China that was published in May 2021 is titled: “Using bioprinting and spheroid culture to create a skin model with sweat glands and hair follicles.” The researchers managed to simultaneously induce sweat gland and hair follicle regeneration. Moreover, they discovered a symbiotic relationship between sweat gland scaffolds and hair follicle spheroids.
3D Bioprinting of Hair and Sweat Glands.
Using 3D bioprinting and spheroid culture to create skin with sweat glands and hair follicles. Source: Burns & Trauma, Volume 9, 2021.

Also make sure to read my past tissue engineering of hair follicles post covering work from Dr. Angela Christiano’s team at Columbia University. It is also summarized in the below 2019 video:

Poietis, L’Oréal, BASF and Dr. Atala

The most exciting work in this area of 3D printed hair (and skin) involves the partnership between Poietis, L’Oréal and BASF. Even after years of reading about 3D bioprinting and watching many videos on the subject, it still seems like science fiction to me. However, this is definitely not fiction, and the basic technology has already existed and been used in people for over a decade.

Dr. Anthony Atala (a pioneer who I have mentioned a few times on this blog) has two extremely popular TED Talk videos on this subject from 2010 and 2011. At the time, Dr. Atala’s work was also well covered in this article. More recently, Dr. Atala has been working with NASA to print artificial organs in space.

3D Printed Hair and Hair Systems

While we are most interested in cellular level 3D hair follicle bioprinting and transplantation, there also exist other uses of 3D printers that involve hair. Methods that make use of synthetic materials an do not entail any kind of complicated scaffolds and culturing.

MIT Media Group’s Cillia: 3D Printed Hair

The first of these was not widely covered, but since it involves researchers from MIT, I give it precedence. These scientists are part of the MIT Tangible Media Group, led by Dr. Hiroshi Ishii, and their project is called Cillia. Note that they do not discuss the human scalp whatsoever, and they are using bitmap technology to print this hair rather than any kind of actual cells.

The futurism website has a much more detailed article on the subject, although I laughed when I read this quote:

“While there are a number of potential aesthetic purposes, customized paint brushes or strong adhesive surfaces might be at the top of people’s lists on what 3D printed hair could be used for.”

I would guess the exact opposite. The aesthetic purposes will be far more important from a commercial perspective. Or maybe I am just underestimating the market for paint brushes and adhesive surfaces?

Make sure to also see the work from Carnegie Mellon University for creating lifelike hair fibers using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer.

CRLAB (Cesare Ragazzi): 3D Printed CNC Hair  System

Hair systems and prosthesis are not exactly what me have in mind  when we discuss 3D printed hair. However, Italian company CRLAB (previously Cesare Ragazzi) has received tremendous publicity in recent years for its CNC 3D printed hair and scalp prosthesis systems.

You can watch is a Lab Tour video of the company to learn more. Their work was even covered on 3dprint.com in 2016. The company’s technology is essentially an attempt at making a much better wig/hairpiece/hair system/toupee than anything that is in existence today. With far less expensive and frequent maintenance requirements. Plus a superior individualized fit (scalp mapping). The technology is based on CNC systems that are being sold around the world by Cesare Ragazzi.

Brief Items of Interest, February 2017

Hair loss news first:

Update: Due to several people asking, I contacted Follica about their parent company Puretech’s latest presentation, and they sent me the following disappointing news:

“Hi! There wasn’t any news about Follica presented. The moderator was focused mostly on CNS.”

— In Aclaris Therapeutics’ latest webcast presentation from today (given at the Leerink Partners 6th Annual Global Healthcare Conference), the company’s CEO further elaborated on why they are so optimistic about “highly selective covalently bound JAK 3 inhibitors” helping patients with male pattern hair loss. More importantly, the CEO emphasized treating female hair loss and how that is even more distressing than male hair loss. You can listen to the whole presentation after registration, and also see the 42 slides in there. Main sections are a little after 16:30 minutes into the presentation and later on around 21:30 into the presentation. For once, someone asked a specific question about covalently bound JAK 3 inhibitors and male pattern hair loss. The most interesting quotes from the CEO:

“Most importantly, androgenic alopecia. Even though that’s traditionally not thought of as an inflammatory process, what they were able to find is that the JAK inhibitors were targeting the stem cell compartment in the hair follicle bulge and actually prolonging and inducing anagen”.

“Being covalently bound…its got a much better shot of not being as promiscous as the other JAK inhibitors“.

— Renowned Singapore based venture capitalist Finian Tan is a major investor in Samumed. I did not realize that he made the decision to invest in the company so suddenly. In his own words: “Only twice in my life I have bet so big on day one”. Poker champion, Samumed CEO Dr. Osman Kibar clearly has some hypnotic powers at his disposal.

— More developments in finding the genes behind baldness. On this blog I have covered several other recent such developments, including this interesting one from last year.

— On Hairsite, there is a great question and answer session with Dr. Paul Kemp of HairClone. Dr. Kemp also did the same on here a few months ago.

— After Hairsite’s revamp of its forum into a mobile friendly one late last year, the Hair Transplant Network is planning to do the same to its interesting forum.

— Several times during the past year, I have posted news about various doctors offering an adipose (fat) cell plus platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combo treatment for hair loss. It seems like this treatment was part of a US based clinical trial, but I never did too much research into it. A new article on this pointed me towards the main page for the actual website of the trials. They call it STRAAND , which stands for “Stromal Tissue Cell-enriched treatment of Androgenic Alopecia via Novel Deployment”. So far, six doctors are participating. However, unlike in other trials, it seems like patients are responsible for their own expenses.

— A small sample size new study from Italy on non-activated versus activated PRP and the impact of different PRP collection devices on the final result. Dr. Cole from the US is a co-author.

— Replicel CEO Lee Buckler writes his first article for the Huffington Post: “Will 2017 be the year of Cell Therapies?“.

— Over the years, there have been numerous rumors on hair loss forums that actor Matthew McConaughey has had hair transplants. However, the actor himself has in the past credited a product called Regenix for his great hair. Mr. McConaughey recently went on the “Live with Kelly” show in the US and credited Regenix yet again with a great review. I have no idea about the ingredients of Regenix since they are proprietary, but the manufacturer claims they are all-natural. More on this story here.

Jimmy Lewin recently shaved his head and apparently its a big deal.

And now on to medical items of interest:

US patent office hands win in CRISPR battle to Broad Institute and Dr. Feng Zhang.

Human gene editing receives US science panels support. If you have trouble accessing the site, another take here. One day later, a warning from ethicists.

DARPA: We are on the cusp of merging human and machine.

— From the respected “The Economist” magazine: “Printed human body parts could soon be available for transplant“.

— The long quest to create artificial blood may soon be over.

Trump vows to ease rules and regulations for drug makers.

— The tiny robots revolutionizing eye surgery.

Computer lets fully paralyzed patients speak for the first time.

— A lengthy article on Dr. Anthony Atala, with many photos

— First human-pig chimeras created.

— New study that provides further evidence of caloric restriction and longevity.