— Update: A day after I wrote this post, CNN covered JAK inhibitors in a new article (in a pleasant surprise, they also looked at the androgenetic alopecia — AGA — angle). Usually, all these articles on JAK inhibitors only look at alopecia areata (AA). Yet again, Dr. Christiano says she is optimistic that JAKs could work on AGA patients (but only in a topical form). Dr. Brett King is not optimistic, but he is still testing it out (in a lotion form) on his AA patients (probably the ones who also have AGA). In the above article, the one AA patient who they show with regrown hair after being on oral JAK inhibitors did not regrow hair that he lost to AGA, although it is impossible to tell whether he did not regrow 100 percent of his AGA hair loss or not. In any event, we will only know for sure about this once they test topical JAK inhibitors out so people should not get so emotional about this subject each time there are new developments. You should also not try to test your own topical version as even the experts are having a hard time developing the appropriate version. According to Dr. Christiano:
“Though she thinks men might have the same success with an ointment, she said the trick is that it has to penetrate properly. Compared with the paper-thin skin of mice, human skin is “much thicker, and it’s oily, and it’s deep, and it’s got a fat layer — so there’s a lot to think about when making a good topical formula.”
It is well worth watching the video in the above article just to see the funky haired mice.
— In a first, myself as well as all of this blog’s commentators missed the important International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery (ISHRS)’s 24th Annual Congress that ran from September 28th through October 1st in Las Vegas. I did not even see any threads on the conference in any of the hair loss forums out there, which is strange. I usually cover the 2-3 most important hair loss related conferences in the world every year in separate posts, but this time I forgot to do so. You can find the detailed ISHRS 24th Congress final program guide here. As usual, there were way too many interesting presentations. For our purposes, the most important ones were:
Dr. Angela Christiano: “JAK Inhibitors, Hair Regeneration and Genetic Testing”.
Dr. Pantelis Rompolas: “Potency and Contribution of Stem Cells to Hair Follicle Regeneration”.
Dr. Rodney Sinclair: “Advancing our Understanding of the Biology of Androgenetic Alopecia and Changing the way we use Minoxidil to Treat it”.
Dr. Angela Christiano and Dr. Ken Washenik led a discussion titled “Biotechnology in Hair Regeneration”.
On Twitter, Dr. Alan Bauman told me that while Dr. Christiano did not provide any data on JAK inhibitors for androgenetic alopecia (AGA), she did hint that JAK inhibitors seem to stimulate the anagen phase of the hair growth cycle. Fingers crossed as usual when it comes to this subject. I was surprised at the number of presentations on body hair transplants (BHT), with Dr. Arvind Poswal discussing long-term ten-year plus results of his BHT patients. Also surprising were the number of presentations on platelet-rich plasma (PRP).
— In stark contrast to the above omission, in the past week at least 10 (!) people either commented under a blog post or e-mailed me about cosmetics behemoth L’oréal (France) and Poietis (France) partnering to bioprint hair follicles via laser. This news item was extremely well covered across the global media and there are hundreds of articles on the internet about this interesting subject matter. The end goal “holy grail” of this research will be to implant the new hair follicles into balding regions. Below is the official company video outlining the technology and the goals behind this partnership:
— Cassiopeia (Italy) updates us on its topical anti-androgen product Breezula (formerly called CB-03-01). Also see my past post on this subject. It seems like even if phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials succeed, this product will not come to market before 2021.
— Samumed’s Dr. Osman Kibar’s presentation (a small part of it is on hair loss) at a recent conference organized by the UK’s Royal Society of Medicine. He received many compliments on Twitter for his presentation.
Over the past few years I have collected quite a few interesting links related to a cure for grey hair. I kept delaying writing this post because a cure for grey hair is obviously far less important than a cure for hair loss. However, there are some interesting ideas in reversing grey hair that are also relevant to reversing hair loss. Moreover, once we get back a full head of hair by the end of 2020 (as hoped), the vast majority of us will no doubt prefer that the new hair does not turn grey. At that point, grey hair will be deemed to be a significant problem. Finally, for those of us who are balding as well as graying, it is a double whammy.
Why Does Hair Turn Grey?
A person’s hair color is determined by his/her pigment producing stem cells known as melanocytes working in conjunction with his/her hair follicle stem cells. Hair color depends on the presence and ratios of two types of melanins: eumelanins (brown and black pigments) and pheomelanins (red and yellow pigments). As people age, a natural buildup of hydrogen peroxide occurs in their hair follicles, which in turn causes oxidative stress, melanocyte destruction and subsequent graying (side note: many women use hydrogen peroxide solutions to go blonde).
In 2009, a team of scientists from Germany and the UK figured out why this hydrogen peroxide buildup occurs in people as they age and why hydrogen peroxide is to blame for graying hair. Basically, in younger people an enzyme called catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. However, as people get older, they often have lower levels of this enzyme as well as lower levels of other enzymes called MSR A and B that repair hydrogen peroxide related damage to hair follicles. The combination of high levels of hydrogen peroxide and low levels of MSR A and B also disrupts the formation of an enzyme called tyrosinase, which is important to melanin production in hair follicles. Scientists think that something similar is at play in the skin condition called vitiligo. Link to actual study.
Is PC-KUS (a modified pseudocatalase) the Cure for Grey Hair?
“The researchers found that this massive build up of hydrogen peroxide can be reversed with a UVB-activated compound called PC-KUS, a modified pseudocatalase. The research team developed this new proprietary treatment.”
PC-KUS was also supposed to cure vitiligo. So why are the cures for gray hair and vitiligo (maybe not for long) still not here?
I am not sure if this avenue of work is over, and perhaps these same scientists will surprise us and come out with better news in the near future.
L’Oréal: A Pill to Prevent Grey Hair Forever?
During the past decade, France’s cosmetics behemoth L’Oréal has led global research in the private sector when it comes to a search for a cure for grey hair. The company’s head of the “Hair Biology Group”, Mr. Bruno Bernard, is a co-inventor of a topical product to protect and/or regenerate the melanocytes of hair follicles. The patent for this product was filed in 2009.
Dr. Mayumi Ito, Wnt Signaling and a Cure for Grey Hair
Dr. Mayumi Ito is a renowned Japanese hair loss research scientist who got her Ph.D from Nagoya University in 2003. She now does research and teaching at New York University. She has authored numerous papers on the impact of Wnt signaling on hair follicle growth and regeneration. On this blog you can find many posts that discuss this important subject matter (see all the posts in the Wnt/Beta-Catenin category). However, in 2011, Dr. Ito found that Wnt signaling also explains hair losing its pigmentation. Her team even restored hair color in mice (of course) in 2011 via manipulating the Wnt pathway. It remains to be seen when they will experiment in humans (via stem cell injection or gene therapy) and see a successful reversal of grey hair.
Is Dr. Cotsarelis (in partnership with Dr. Ito) also Working on Hair Loss Pigmentation?
Interestingly, in December 2011 the renowned Dr. George Cotsarelis and Dr. Mayumi Ito filed for a patent titled titled “Methods for generating new hair follicles, treating baldness, and hair removal.” This patent was recently approved in December 2015. In the description to the patent, it ends with “The present invention also provides methods for hair removal and inducing hair pigmentation.” Incredible! A three in one solution (hair regrowth, body hair removal, and grey hair reversal). If only Dr. Cotsarelis’ predictions and optimism would be realized faster than he thinks or claims.
Can Finasteride Reverse Grey Hair?
Over the years, I have read quite a few testimonials on hair loss forums where Finasteride users claim that their hair seems to have become darker as well as more plentiful while on Finasteride (which reduces DHT levels). The majority of these patients had very limited quantities of grey hair to start with, so it was hard for me to tell from their before and photos (when available) if this phenomenon was true or not. However, in 2014, forum member “bverotti” who is a hair transplant clinic representative in Belgium posted a stunning before and after image of one of the clinic’s patients on Finasteride. Yes it shows blonde hair turning brown, but I think of that as the same as grey hair turning brown or grey hair turning black.
Based on anecdotal observations in real life, I think that DHT besides making many people go bald also makes some of them go grey much sooner. I do not know if this has ever been shown to be true in any kind of study and I could be wrong in my observation.
Can Dutasteride Reverse Grey Hair?
Using similar logic as in the above paragraph regarding Finasteride, I think that the much stronger Dutasteride can also reverse grey hair. Moreover, a few of the commentators in my post on Dutasteride Testimonials mention that the drug darkened their hair.
Could Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Reverse Grey Hair?
I have covered PRP to treat hair loss many times on this blog. While the results are not always guaranteed and PRP will not bring back hair in totally bald areas of the scalp, there are now numerous doctors who believe in the product (especially when used in conjunction with ACell or other types of extracellular matrix products). More relevant to this blog’s subject matter, in November 2015, Dr. Carlos Wesley started an interesting thread on the Bald Truth Talk forums with a photo showing PRP and ACell mesotherapy darkening some previously transparent scalp hair. This was very surprising to me. Moreover, he states that “An additional finding that has also been observed by other practices throughout the world is that PRP can help return some of the original hair color to follicles.” I will add more here if some other clinics confirm this phenomenon. It seems like PRP could be stimulating melanocytes in hair follicles, although we need far more evidence than just the one photo from Dr. Wesley.
Could Stem Cell Transplants Regrow Hair and Cure Grey Hair?
I have discussed Dr. Takashi Tsuji on this blog briefly in the past. His video (see below) showed black pigmented hair growing on a mouse after stem cell transplantation. Moreover, this article has the following sentence “He combined a number of stem cells to adjust the density and color of the hair, raising the possibility of a cure to graying strands.”
Will Telomerase Activation Therapy Reverse Grey Hair?
There are a number of online testimonials regarding telomarase therapy via the ingestion of the TA-65 supplement reversing grey hair and/or growing new hair. There are also many opinions to the contrary. I cover all this and more in my post titled “TA-65. telomerase activation and hair regrowth“.
Until a cure for grey hair does come out, people will have to accept their graying locks, or continue to use hair dyes. In 2013, Proctor & Gamble came out with a supposed permanent hair dye based on a new proprietary ME+ molecule. The new molecule (chemical name 2-Methoxymethyl-p-Phenylenediamine) was apparently a result of 20 years of research. Proctor & Gamble’s website also raved about ME+ in early 2014, but it does not seem like all this early optimism has led to any kind of new blockbuster permanent dye product.
Stress and Plucking will not Cause Grey Hair
Most of the articles I have read on this subject seem to indicate that for the vast majority of people, stress will not cause early premature graying of hair, while plucking hair will definitely not cause it to go grey. Both of these myths are old wives’ tales. Some articles suggest that US presidents have grayed a lot while in office, but in my opinion, these presidents’ parents are also usually fully grey haired in their old age — so it is not surprising to see more grey hairs appearing on the presidents’ heads when they are in office in their 50s and 60s. In all likelihood its about genetics and not stress.
Grey Hair is not Always a Sign of Ageing
Since grey hair usually only affects people in their mid-30s and aftermath (and a full head of grey or white hair is almost never seen in those below the age of 50), most people assume that it is a sign of ageing. However, this is not always the case. There is no shortage of celebrities on TV that have grayed at a very early age. Perhaps the two most famous examples here in the US are Anderson Cooper and Jay Leno, who both look very young for their age in that video despite graying in their 20s. Cooper started to go grey at just 20 and Leno at 29 according to his statement in that video. Neither seems to have any health issues despite now having been grey for decades. If anything, both seem to be aging at slower pace then the rest of us.
Grey Hair in Men versus in Women
Grey hair is a far greater concern for women than for men. For the former, it represents a sign of aging and an almost certain end to careers in acting and modeling unless the hair is dyed all the time. For the latter, this is not true, and some men are even purposely buying grey hair dye in order to look like George Clooney. Humans are nature’s strangest creation indeed.