Category Archives: Immunosuppressants

Allogeneic Hair Transplant Success

One of the most common questions that people suffering from hair loss ask is why one cannot perform a hair transplant from one person to another? If this were possible, it would essentially be a hair loss cure! There would be no shortage of people with stellar hairlines that would be willing to donate a fraction or their hair to balding men and women for a decent price.

Unfortunately, the biggest issue with person-to-person hair transplants is rejection of foreign material. The only way to overcome this problem would be via the recipient taking immunosuppressants for life, which is potentially very dangerous.

Allogeneic Hair Transplant Success — No Immunosuppressants

A few days ago, it was announced that researchers from Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) had successfully conducted an allogeneic hair transplant without the use of  immunosuppressants. The research team was led by Professor Kwon Oh-sang.

Professor Kwon Oh-sangWhile this particular success involved 24 (!) mice-to-mice hair transplants rather than person-to-person hair transplants, it is still absolutely groundbreaking. Moreover, the mice immune systems were “humanized” via hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Nevertheless, this story was not covered by any newspapers or online publications in the western world! No idea why.

Normal hair transplants as we know them are autologous, where a person has his or her own hair grafts move them from the donor site to the recipient site. Allogeneic hair transplants are a different animal.

In this latest South Korean research, the scientists overcame immune system rejection of donor hair by eliminating dendritic cells. The team used ultraviolet B radiation to remove all the donor dendritic cells that were present in the donor hair follicles.

Interestingly, the scientists point out that hair follicles are less likely to be rejected by the immune system than other organs such as the heart, kidney and so on. In this regard, hair follicles are a bit like the cornea.

According the Dr. Oh-sang, such an allogeneic hair transplant procedure will be challenging to apply in practice when it comes to humans. However, this discovery does create new potential applications that were not possible before.

I wonder if he plans to start experimenting with part-autologous and part-allogeneic hair transplant procedures in humans in the near future?

Also of Interest:

First ever skull and scalp transplant.

— Face, organ and limb transplants and immunosuppressive drugs.

Person to Person Hair Transplants Revisited

Modern hair transplants generally produce quality results. However, the biggest disadvantage of hair transplants remains the fact that people have limited donor hair at the back of their scalps in the safe “permanent” zone.  Men with large bald areas will usually not get great results from a hair transplant unless their coverage expectations are modest and they do not mind seeing barren scalp on days when their hair becomes wet in the rain or disheveled by the wind.

Because of this lack of sufficient donor hair supply, one would wonder why person to person hair transplants have not become more common?  The obvious and most cited explanation from hair transplant surgeons is that due to the requirement of taking anti-rejection medications (immunosuppressants) for life, person to person hair transplants are almost never approved. Taking immunosuppressants for life carries significant health risks, although from what I have read in numerous organ transplant stories, no-one seems to be dying from this and people monitor themselves daily when taking such drugs.  I wonder how many people below the age of 60 die from the side effects of taking immunosuppressants?  Moreover, it seems like physicians are getting closer and closer to weaning organ recipients off of immunosuppressants entirely!  That would be a miracle.

In any case, even if proven to be very safe with a great chance of getting weaned off them in the long run, I would still not want to take such drugs just to get more scalp hair.  Therefore I was not planning on writing a post about person to person hair transplants due to their being unlikely to ever become popular…..until yesterday, when I reread the summary of a groundbreaking experiment from 1999 by Dr. Colin Jahoda on his wife Dr. Amanda Reynolds.

Dr. Jahoda transplanted several of his scalp hairs to Dr. Reynolds arm, and four hairs then grew on Dr. Reynolds arm.  I had heard and read about this well known experiment numerous times in the past, but forgot to ever check if Dr. Reynolds took immunosuppressants. Then I read the below in the above linked article and felt like a lightening bolt struck me:

Apart from its theoretical use in cosmetic medicine, the experiment reveals that hair follicles are one of the rare tissues apparently capable of being transplanted from one body to another without rejection. Why evolution has endowed them with such “immune privilege” is a mystery.

This makes me wonder why more surgeons have not attempted person to person scalp hair to scalp hair transplants?  In one of my past posts where I briefly mentioned person to person hair transplants, one commentator suggested that you could never get another living person to donate his/her hair to you.  I think that is absolutely incorrect.  If I had a very full thick head of hair and someone offered me say $100,000 to donate 20 percent of my scalp hair, I would be more than happy to do it (especially if the hair is taken from the back).  If it were a good friend or family member, I would probably do it for free.

Going back to the above article, it seems like Dr. Jahoda transferred dermal sheath cells rather than actual hair, even though full hairs were extracted from Dr. Jahoda’s scalp prior to extraction of the dermal sheath cells from them via the use of a powerful microscope. Dr. Jahoda holds a patent on this procedure, and I might contact him to see what came of it.  He did have some doubts about the hair cycling normally or not after one round of shedding was over.

Although I was excited by this new finding on my part after re-reading the summary of the Jahoda experiment, considering that it all happened in 1999, I think there must be some sound explanation behind person to person transplants never taking off.

I nevertheless did some more googling on this, and came across an interesting comment from 2009 that is pasted below.  Usually I do not like to quote comments from internet based forum members, but this one from Marion Landan on the regrowhair site seems somewhat legitimate and sincere to me:

Just want to correct what you are saying about hair transplanting from another person. The people do not have to be identical twins or even related to one another. I have been told by a retiring hair transplant expert who tried some of these surgeries that sometimes it works and sometimes it doesn’t. Just as there was a learning curve for transfusing blood, there are things not understood about why hair can be transplanted sometimes from an unrelated donor, and sometimes can’t even be transplanted between identical twins (possibly with the twins the bald brother had an infection that caused his original hair loss, after transplantation from his brother, his head swelled up and rejected the new hair). I have also been told that hair transplanting between people was made illegal in the United States several years ago — so doctors no longer try it.

Why would this have been made illegal?  Were there serious side effects involved?

Also interesting: if you get someone else’s bone marrow, you can also get their scalp hair.

Also interesting: from 2007, the famous facial transplant surgeon Maria Siemionow thinks it will soon be possible to transplant an entire scalp from a dead person to a live one, and it might just require a limited time on immunosupressants.  Half of Dr. Siemionow’s prediction came true in 2015 (see next sentence below).

And also interesting right from this blog: first ever skull and scalp transplant.

Finally, it seems like there are certain commonalities between donor and recipient that might increase the likelihood of survival of organs and tissues after a transplant.  These can include blood type, certain common genes and more.   Transplant survival rates with or without anti-rejection medication will continue to improve as researchers uncover more details regarding such issues.